History of MurreeHills

7/09/2019 03:20:00 AM Khawaja Khalid (Nomi Prince) 0 Comments

History of Murree Hills(1849 Till Now)-(From the start of British rule On Murree Hills)

                Before "1849" it is village area & it is use as a bypass way for Kashmir.With the time being its become a city and a great hill staion after the British came here in Murree.But our website is newest & it is our duty to privide you the best and real story  of Murree Hills,also before 1849 and till up to date,Therefore we contact to the team of "Hillian Investigators" which worked on paranormal & historical places,So they can give us the ture & good history of Murree Hills before 1849,16 & 17 centeury,How the Murree Hills Was? When ever we get that story we updated.Any ways for the now on we get the History of Murree Hills till now in the book we get from "Iqbal Municipal Labrary Murree",The book named "Murree Past, Prenst & Future (Centenary Celebrations) June-August, 1967" the content in the book was written by Late Khawaja Abdul Latif M.A (Chief officer Municipal Committe, Murree).

Murree-Through The Decades.

      Murree was founded by the British in 1849 on the "shamlat" or pasture lands of the Village known as Mussiari. The village Mussiari can be seen from any point on the ridge extending from Kashmir to the Pindi point. Much hair-splitting has been done to unravel the mystery surrounding the name of Murree. Some writers have attributed the name to   "Mary"—the Mother of Jesus Christ and in support of their contention have pointed to the Tower at Pindi point where there is a grave known as "Mai Mari". The Municipal File regarding the Tower at Pindi point does not mention the name "Mai Mari". It is a word which has been coined by some people for unknown reasons. It is fantastic to imagine that "Mary" the mother of Jesus roamed two thousand years ago in the thick forest of this area which were infested with wild animals. The simple fact is that Murree is derived from the word "Marhi (ﻣﮍﻯ)" which in the local dialect means a place at a higher altitude. The village Mussiari was and is situated at a much lower level than its grazing ground i.e., the site of the modern town of Murree and the village always referred to their "shamlat" as "Marhi (ﻣﮍﻯ)". There is no equivalent for"ﮌ "in the English Language and it was therefore called "Murree" by the original British settlers.

      The Britishers complete the conquest of the Punjab and subjugated the Sikhs in 1848, and within a year they had to find a place which could give their families relief from the sweltering heat of the plains. Explorations were undertaken and the ridge now known as Murree situated at a height of about 7500ft. was found to be an ideal place fro the purpose of establishing a hill station. The bewitching sylvicultural beauty of the place, more so in those days when it was all thick lush green forests, captured their imagination. It resembled their country in land-scape and climate. A detailed survey of the ridge where Murree is now located, its climate, temperature, rain fall, fauna and flora, tribes and their customs, water resources etc. was undertaken and it was finally decided that it was a most suitable place for a sanatorium. The speed with which the station was developed shows that the British not only knew how to conquer but were also unrivalled in the matter of consolidating the gains they had made in the battle field.

      The first difficulty which the Britishers faced was that most of the area comprised the "Shamlat" or pasture land of village Mussiari and to some extent of other surrounding villages. The Britishers could have straight-away acquired the ridge as they had done in the case of the Sub-continent but in this region, for one reason or the other, they showed respect for the rule of law. To complete the so-called legal formalities they made arrangement with the villagers giving them remissions in land revenue and some cash compensation in return for the acquisition of their land. The following remissions and compensations were decided upon:--

Village               Remissions in land            cash compensation

                                   Revenue

Sain Rewari          ..   Rs.7.50                            50.00

Charehan              ..   Rs. -----                            25.00

Rewat                   ..   Rs. -----                            35.00

Tappa Ker            ..   Rs. 00.50                          30.00

Malot                   ..    Rs.12.75                          100.00

Khani Taq            ..   Rs. 10.00                          100.00

Sadian, jawa        ..   Rs. 35.37                          600.00
And Dhar

Nambal                ..   Rs. 29.00                           600.00

Samli and Dana    ..   Rs. 18.00                           400.00

      In this way, a total remission of Rs. 114/- in land revenue and cash compensation of Rs. 1940/- was given to all the villages. The village Mussiari was given special treatment in so far as it was decided to give the owners a cash lease money of Rs. 50/- per annum in perpetuity. This arrangement was approved by the Governor General from Fort William, Calcutta vide his letter No. 4077 dated 23rd November, 1855. The owners of Mussiari continue to get this compensation even today and the family of Nazar Mohd the orderly of the present writer consisting of 32 persons still gets Rs. 0.31 per annum. The story goes that the original bargain with the people of Mussiari was for Rs. 60/- but the headman of the village took pity on the wife of the White Sahib who was wearing a skirt and after hurried consultation returned Rs. 10/- for the Shalwar of the Mem Sahib to cover her naked legs.

      The first page in the oldest register of the Municipal Committee, Murree showing that this register is maintained under "Rules for the Station of Murree" passed by the Board of Administration for the Punjab on 9th April, 1851.

      Proceedings of Municipal Committee Meeting in 1867.

      It is surprising that three years after the conquest of the Punjab from the Sikhs, the "Rules for the Administration of Murree town" were framed in 1851. these Rules authorized certain British Officials headed by the Commissioner and Superintendent of Rawalpindi, to constitute a "Murree sanatorium Committee" for the development of Murree and its civic services. This body was completely autonomous and was vested with powers to dispose of land. It may be mentioned that construction of bungalows had already started and by 1850 more than 50 bungalows had been constructed towards Kashmir Point, Pindi Point and Kuldana Road. Some of the buildings built in 1850 are Fairfield, Holme Villa (present owner Mr. Noman Jan Erkin), Ghalzai Lodge (now known as Marina Hotel), Doctor Commons (now the property of Minto Brothers), Pinnacle Hill (the present President's House), Dovecot (present owner Begum S. Ghiasuddin Ahmed, SQA., CSP), Spur Cottage (present owner Sardar Abdul Jabbar, Barrister, Multan), Abbey House (present owner Mir Khalil-ur-Rahman of daily Jhang), Rockedge (present owner Mian Muhammad aslam, Timber Merchant). Incidentally, the Spur Cottage was the scene of the execution of several patriots who led the war of freedom in 1857, and the death sentence was announced by Mr. Barty, the then Assistant Commissioner, Murree. The records of Murree sanatorium, as it were known then, show that most of the bungalows at Kashmir and Pindi Points were completed by 1855.

      It may be mentioned that the Punjab Government had legislated Act No. XXVI in 1850 which authorities the Provincial Government to allow certain cities in the Punjab to assume powers of local administration. This act was extended to Murree vide Punjab Government Notification No. 596 dated 11th March, 1867, and the "Murree Sanatorium Committee" was converted into a Municipal Committee. The following were nominated as members of the Municipal Committee:--

1- The Commissioner and Supdt. Rawalpindi division.

2- The Assistant Commissioner, Murree

3- The Deputy Comdt. Rawalpindi

4- The Officer Comdt. Depot

5- The Officer in Medical Charge Depot

6- The Station Staff Officer, Murree

7- The Executic Engineer, Murree

8- The Sanitary Commissioner, Punjab

9- The Deputy Inspector General of Hospitals

10- The Deputy Inspector General of Police

11- Major Genl. S.A. Abbott

12- Lt.-Col. H.C. Johnstone C.B Rev. Survey

13- Mr. Ges. Housdon, survey Department

14- Mr. N. Baker Merchant

15- Mr. I.M. Ghinress, Manager Rev. Board

16- Mr. F. Long, Chemist, Murree.

      The Municipal Committee was an exclusive preserve of the British and the Britishers never intended to initiate the "natives" into the mysteries of self-Government. The minute book of the Municipal Committee would show that in 1873 one Mr. Jehangir a leader of the Parsee community which consisted of influential businessmen approached the Municipal Committee for giving them representation in the Committee. The Committee considered the application and postponed the descision till next meeting. This meeting never came off. A new Municipal Act was promulgated in 1885, for the whole of the Punjab and it was also extended to Murree. The citizens of Murree were called upon to elect four out of the 12 members of the committee. Consequently, 4 elected members took their places in the committee in 1887. They were:--

1- Mr. Housdon

2- Seth Dhanjibhoy

3- Lala Pindi Dass

4- Khawaja Mohammad Hassan

      The minute books of the Murree Sanatorium recorded in neat handwriting would reveal the keenness of the British to keep Murree as their exclusive preserve. The Sanatorium Committee received several applications from Indians for allotment of land in the station Area but they were turned down on one pretext or the other. The Britishers were, however, treated liberally and one of the conditions of allotment of land to them was that no less than 2 acres of land could be purchased. They were given trees on fantastically low prices and were also allowed to blast stone for construction of their houses.

      The minute book of the Municipal committee show that due regard was given to the voice of the Indian members. They were taken on various sub committees and were authorized to report even on matter affecting the British settlers. Each and every application used to be considered by the Municipal Committee and the decisions were taken by majority. The number of "yes" and "noes" was invariably recorded. It appears that the British settlers could not imagine even in their wildest dreams that they would have to leave this place some day. Land was sold by the committee at Rs. 50/- per acre and the Britishers, mostly retired Army and Civil Officers, vied with each other in purchasing land. They laid orchards and imported fruit plants from Europe (these have now been destroyed). The directory of bungalows and business houses compiled in 1913 shows that all the bungalows in the station area were owned by the British settlers and on the Jinnah Road all the business houses i.e., cafes, chemist shops, grocery shops, hair dressing saloons, cloth shops belonged to the Britishers. Only two shops on the Jinnah Road belonged to the Indians i.e., Jamesjee wine Murchant (the present U.S.I.S centre) and jagat singh and sons, chemists (present chishtee and Co. Chemists).

      The records show that the Municipal Committee administered its affairs with vigor and efficiency. On several occasions, the committee took a firm stand against the decisions of Government and in the matter of disposal of land refused to allot land to the fast growing Military camps on no-cost-basis. When the Supreme Government ordered the Municipal Committee to hand over the Kuldana Hill Top to the Army Authorities for a camp free of cost in 1881, the Municipal Committee protested against the decision of the Central Government and refused to part with the land on no-cost-basis. The Deputy Commissioner, Rawalpindi was then appointed an Arbitrator with the consultation of the committee who gave a decision that the Municipal Committee cannot part with the land free of charge unless the Central Government withdrew the powers with regard to the disposal of land vested in the Municipal Committee.

On one occasion in 1869, Major General Abbott, a Member of the Municipal Committee moved a resolution that the chaplain of the church of England on the Jinnah Road (Mall Road)who had blocked a public path be asked to remove the fencing which he had put up and failing this the Committee should remove it and prosecute the Offender. The Chaplain moved the Lt. Governor who called the explanation of the Committee and on being furnished with it, agreed with the Committee. The Chaplain had to re-open the public path.

      It appears that the main worry of the Municipal Committee throughout the later half of 19th Century was the water supply problem. Six natural springs were the main source of water supply. In spite of the best efforts of the Municipal committee, these could not be protected against contamination. Consequently, the cholera epidemic visited the town every 3rd or 4th year. The best spring according to the chemical reports of those times was the one located in Frank Villa Estate, sunny Bank (now the property of bismullah begum, niece of late Mr.L.K.Haider, a resident of Kahuta, and a Member of the Indian Central Public Service Commission in the thirties of this Century). Water for the use of Sir Donald McLeod, Lt. Governor of the Punjab, who was putting un in the present terrace park (the bungalow having been burnt during partition) used to be taken from this spring. This tank fell into disuse several years ago and has now been reclaimed by Raja Muhammad Sabir, vice Chairman of the Municipal Committee. It now feeds the entire Sunny bank Area and the acute water shortage in this area is a thing of the past.

      In spite of the repeated instructions of the Punjab government, the Municipal Committee could not develop a better water supply system because its income in 1867 was only Rs. 11,000/- per Annum while that of Delhi in this year was Rs. 2 -1/2 lacs. The committee applied for a loan of Rs.60,000 fro a water supply scheme but refused to take it when it was sanctioned because the committee thought they would not be able to repay the loan with interest in view of their extremely meager finances. The inadequate and contaminated water supply from the springs and the repeated visitations of cholera scared away the Lt. Governor and the Shifted his Headquarters to Simla in 1876.

      An important feature of the Municipal Administration during the second half of the 19th century was that the Municipal Committee had its own police force which consisted of 4sergeants and 21 constables. This strength was reduced to two sergeants and 12 constables in 1877. The Inspector Police was appointed by the provincial Government. Once he was asked by the committee to supervise the construction of a drain in Pindi Point and the poor fellow did his job well, but the district supdt. Of police having come to know of this incident protested to the Municipal Committee for "misusing" his Inspector. The committee apologized to the District Supdt. Of police and undertook to take his previous permission in future if they did it again.

      The Committee defended its staff against local intrigue and pressures. In 1873 the secretary removed certain unauthorized notice boards of Mr. Powell, the most powerful member of the Municipal Committee. Mr. Powell protested to the Committee and urged action against the secretary. The Committee by a regular resolution condemned "the intemperate and insulting language used by Mr. Powell" and compelled him "to withdraw the application and offer written apology to the secretary who had acted without fear and favor".

      The journeys between Pindi, Murree and Kashmir were performed in "tamtums" and "ekkas". Nawab Dhanjibhoy enjoyed the monopoly of this transport. There were several ekka stands between Rawalpindi and Murree and Horses used to be changed after 12 miles. Intervening stations were humming with activity and the businessmen did roaring business. Tamtum and Tongas which were a superior mode of travel and were used by the gentry cost much more than the slow moving ekkas which were mostly used by the middle class and poor people. Bullock carts were used for transport of goods and the poorest class of people. Tamtums or the Tongas took 8 hours between Rawalpindi and Murree, the ekkas one day and one night, and bullock carts two days and two nights.

      The first motor vehicle with solid tires traveled between Rawalpindi and Murree on 13th May, 1922. The pedestrians on the road became panicky at the unheard of noises made by the car.

      Mr. Dhanjibhoy owned large property in Murree. His son Nawab Dhanjibhoy migrated to Bombay at the time of independence and died there. Mr. H.J Kaikobad, a prominent landlord is a scion of that famous family. The famous Fir Hill (now the property of Mian Riaz Daultana), which for about a century was the residence of the Punjab Governor after independence, till the new Government house was constructed, belonged to seth Dhanjibhoy. Lord Kitchener, one time the G.O.C. Northern Command, lived in this house and went from here in 1904 to Sudan to smash the Darwesh followers of Mehdi sudani and to avenge the death of Lord Gordon. The spirit of Mehdi whose remains he had exhumed and hanged took its revenge, according to Iqbal, when his ship was torpedoed in the First World War by the German Submarine Emdon and he got a watery grave.

      As mentioned above, the Britishers were determined to permanently settle down in Murree. The first shock came to them when the Montague Chelmsford Reforms were introduced in 1919 and Dyarchy gave Indian representation in the provincial Cabinets. The Britishers saw the ground slipping from under their feet and found themselves demoralized. Some of them began to sell their properties to Indians---mostly Hindus and Sikhs. The India Act of 1935 which brought into existence purely Indian cabinets in the provincial completely demoralized them and there was a stamped to sell properties to Indians. The last Britishers to sell his property was Mr. H.O. Hay , the vice president of the Municipal Committee who sold his property known as Cliffden near Bnasaragali to late Syed Maratab Ali and went back to England in 1954.
      Col. John Powell who was Member and at times Vice president of the Municipal Committee for 70 years -from 1867 to 1937-owned three fashionable hotels and over tow dozen bungalows . He fully dominated the Municipal Committee till 1934 when the deputy commissioner Mr.  C. Kuthburt King , I.C.S. began interfering in his administration and tried to divert his attention fron purely municipal affairs to activities like the Red Cross etc ., which Col.Powell thought was outside his jurisdiction. he did no see eye to eye with Mr. King and resigned -- the good old days when he was the unquestioned master of the committee had gone never to come back. He sold his property mainly to kirpa Ram Brothers and died in Murree in 1937. He is the real builder of Murree and there is hardly any paper in the records of the municipal committee which does not bear the imprint of his personality . Thousands joined the funeral procession of the grand old man of Murree when he died here in 1937. He had gone to England in 1936 but returned to Murree next year telling his sons that he would like to die and be buried in Murree . His son , a Lt. General in the British Army , Still sends letters and money to the sons of Akber Khan, one of his fathers bearers.
       Pindi- Murree Road  which some foreigners have described as the finest hill road was constructed in 1873. An officer of the Royal Engineers surveyed the road . The Church of England on the jinnah Road was Constructed in 1857 and it shows the religious devotion of the British settlers. They undertook the Construction when the whole of the Sub-continent was ablaze on account of Freedom Movement. A devastating fire took place in Murree Bazar on December25, 1873 and again on 17th May, 1875. On the later occasion , the Lt. Governor came to the Bazar and talked to and sympathised with the sufferers . On his instructions, the Commissioner, Rawalpindi , Division raised a fund of Rs. 1500.00 from Rawalpindi and remitted it to the Municipal Committee for relief work. The Municipal Committee gave timber and stones on nominal rates to enable the sufferers to rebuild their houses but clearly laid down the design which provided for keeping timber at least 2 feet away from the mouth of the Chimneys.

       An in sight into prices prevailing at that time is given by a representation made by the residents of Murree to the Municipal committee in 1883 to reduce the rate of fuelwood from 5 maunds per rupee to 10 maunds per rupee. The Municipal Committee agreed to sell fuelwood at the rate of 6 maunds for a rupee. The Municipal Committee used to purchase lime at the rate of 11 maunds for a rupee. Milk was selling at one anna per seer and Col. Powell himself used to ensure that there was no adulteration.

       The Municipal Committee took the keenest interest in the sanitation and road-buiding activity of the town but it is surprising that no school in Murree was opened till 1890. The matter came up before the Committee several times but the committee persistently refused to open a school. Perhaps the Britishers lnew the consequences.

        During the communal riots of 1947, about 6 fashionable hotels and about a hundred bungalows were burnt down. The burnt sites and the malba of these buildings  continued to be the abode of stray dogs, snakes . and lizards and also an eye-sore to the visitors. The Development of damaged area Act was passed by the Provincial Assembly in 1952 and an Improment Trust was constituted to dispose of the properties. The burnt sites were dispose of at low price -- Ranging between Rs. 1000/- to Rs. 1500/-per kenal.The present price in the station area is Rs.20,000/- per kenal. a redeeming feature of this action of the Murree Iprovement Trust, however, was that fashionable and beautiful bungalows sprung up on the burnt sites and Murree once again rose from ashes to its full stature.

       Due to partition shocks the civic services of this only hill station of Pakistan remained in a state of stagnation till 1956. the water supply system which was improved by laying of a 6'' pipe line from Doongagali to Murree in 1892 had eroded and was subject to damages every now and then . The population had increased considerably and Murree was gripped by acute water shorage . there was a scheme of pumping water from River Jhelum but it was abondoned for its high capital and maintenance cost. The other scheme of laying a duplicate 9'' pipeline from Doongagali to Murree to augment the water supply and to increase the carrying capicity during the months of April and May when the yielf rises to 14 lac galoon daily was estimated to cost Rs. 28 lacs . The Murree Municipality was to contribute  Rs. 14 lacs but it could not pay its share for lack of funds the then Commissioner , Rawalpindi, division, Mr.  S. Ghiasuddin Ahmed , C.S.P., who was also the chairman of the joint water board . Murree , was determined to see the scheme through. He was of the firm opinion that a town without an adequate and pure water supply had no right to exist . Through his good affices, the Municipality was given a grant of Rs. 11 lacs to enable it to pay its share of the project. The duplicate pipe line was laid in 1960 and the water shortage which was marked by ''Qs'' of people with pitchers and pails at the public water stands and sometimes even resulted in riots and created law and order problem for the administration became a thing of the past. Murree shall ever remain indebted to Mr. S. Ghiasuddin Ahmed for this support given to the Murree Municipal Committee . Although almost all the bungalows and fashionable hotels have now been fitted with flush system, there are no complaints of shortage of water supply.

          One must not foreget another benefactor of Murree --Mr.  M.S. Chaudhry, C.S.P. who was the administrator of Murree Municipality from 1956 to 1958 . He was deeply distressed to see the dilapidated condition of the kacha roads in the Murree Bazar and framed a five year plan to repave it withstones. He executed the scheme for two years and then his worthy successor Mr. Nasrum Minallah C.S.P. completed the job. A prominent square in Murree Bazar has been name das Siddique Chauk in recognition of the services rendered by him to Murree. By 1960, the entire bazar area with its lanes and byelanes had been repaved at a cost of over Rs. 5laks. Flowers terraces were constructed during the administration of these two young officers from the Jinnah Road Chauk to President's  house. The mercury lamps were installed in place of ordinarylamps. The roads in the station area were repaired and widend; more school and dispensaries were opened and the fire brigade was for thefirst time equipped with a loory and a trailor  pump. Several parks like the Nighat Zar. Jinnah Park(Kinnan Park), the sunken garden on Abid shaheed road were laid. Now the beautiful Bagh-e-Shaheedan is being given final touches and its inauguration on 23rd June, 1967, Inshallah, will mark the beginning of the Centenary Celebrations. After 1960. the young C.S.P officers who acted as chairman of the Municipal Committee and here i should name Mr.  A.R. Siddiqi, Mr.Khalid Javed , Mr. S.M. Zaidi , Mr. Sajjad Ahmed , Mr. Muzaffar Qadir , Mr. Mohammad Ahmed , Mr. Javed Saleem Khan contributed their best towards the development of this hill station. During the season the Murree Festival was organised regularly and has provided lot of fun to the visitors who come here for rest and recreation from all over the country . The Murree Centenary Celebrations are being organised this year and the present Chairmen , Mr. Mohammad Arif , C.S.P. has devoted all the vigour at his command towards this event.

      These days the Municipal Committee is busy in developing a very noble and much , needed project--- Darur Rehmat -- An industrial Home for Woman which has started working from the 1st  June this year. Woman and girls are being tought various arts such as sewing, Knitting, embroidery, leather work and doll-marking and the project deserves partronage by all. The committee is also contemplating of establishing a typing cum short hand college in the town.

        in the end i must mentioned that Murree which has emerged as the only developed hill station of Pakistan and is visited by thousands of persons from all over the country including the diplomats, high dignitaries and the President of Pakistan cannot become a really modern hill station unless there is enough water storage capacity and a sewerage scheme. the septic tanks built by the house owners in the stationarea are a source of nuisance and the situation cannot be improved unless there is a sewerage scheme. the desired water storage capacity and the sewerage scheme are estimated to cost over a crore of rupees. the municipal committee can execut these schemes only if it sells itself ten times over and suspends all civic services for a similar period. Murree is no longer the responsibilty of local tax payers only. it is a town which belongs to the entire country . simla used to get grants from the Central and Provincial Governments as also from the Murree and help it financially to enable the Municipal Committee to develop and expand its civic services.

         It is a tragedy that the municipal forests which were a source of imcome to the Municipal committee for over a 100 years have ceased to be an income - bearing asset to the Municipal committee. These forest were handed over to the Forest Department for Management in 1958 in consideration for a sum of Rs. 65,000/- per annum p-ayable to the Murree Municipal Committee . The annual contribution was regularly paid for 5 years but then it was thought that because these forest belonged to Government the Municipal Committee and no right to receive the annual lease money This fact was perhaps known to Government for over 100 years but the Forest were never resumed because it was considered that being the local authority charged with the responsibilities of maintaining the beauty of the station, it was best fitted to look after their proper management.

      Thus the Municipal Committee has been deprived of about 1/10th of its income which means the closing down of a school here and a dispensary there. It means bad roads with bumps, smaller number of sweepers , broken drains and so on and so forth. The expenditure of the committee is rising every day due to its complex problems and the income must keep pace to enable the Municipality to discharge ite functions efficiently. The commissioner, Rawalpindi , Division , Mr. M.H . Shah, SQA, CSP., is making all out efforts to save the Municipal Committee from an impending financial crisis and the Municipal Committee hopes and prays that his efforts will bear fruit.

        Something must be said about the Tehsil of Murree . Although the town of Murree did not exist before 1849, the rural area and its simple and oppressed people were there like the inumerable village and the teeming millions of the subcontinent. Gulab singh Dogra of Jammu was tha lord of hills. He owed allegiance to the Lahore Darbar. In his history of the Reigning Family of Lahore , Major  G . Camichael Smyth of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry, writes as under  :-

       ''about the years 1832, several independent hill tribes inhabiting the north western religions of the Punjab were reduced into subjection to the Lahore state . These were the Doondh, Soodhun , Suthee, And  Murdiall tribes. The Doonh tribe lived cheifly on the banks of the Jhelum, especially on the western bank, from the point where the river leaves the Kukka Bumba hills for about twenty-five or thirty miles down the stream. This tribe was in number about fifty or sixty thousands . The Soodhun tribe inhabited a large tract on the eastern bank of the same river opposite the country of the Doondh , and  numbered about forty thousand souls. The Suthee tribe dwelt cheifly in the lower hills to the south of the tribes above mentioned , and was estimated at about twenty thousands. Lastly Murdiall tribe lay to east of the Sudhun, and was reckoned at about eighteen thousands people. About the period above mentioned the Dogra brorthers of Jummoo endeavoured to bring these wild clans into subjection, nominally to the Lahore State,but really to them selves. Finding, however, the conquest less easy than they had anticipated , they prevailed upon their master, Runjeet singh , to march with his whole army towards Rawalpindi, and thus to aid them by making a demonstration against the tribes whom they in vain sought to subdue . Runjeet accordingly marched with some sixty thousands men in the direction indicated , and encamped with this force at Kooree, in the plains, but just at the entrance of the hilly region inhabited by the doomed clans . Seening so overwhelming a force , under the famous Runjeet singh, apparently coming against them , and startled by the thunder of a hunderd and fifty pieces of ordnance echoing among their mountains day and night, the people readily submitted to the yoke wich the dogra chiefs sought to impose upon them''.

        Koree is 5 miles from the 17th Mile Toll Barrier on Pindi Murree Road. It Would thus be abserved that the Dogras subjugated the hill tribes with the sikh Army and the sikh Artillery. The Jammu and Kashmir area sold to Gulab Singh Dogra by the Britishers under the Treaty of 1846 included the Murree Tehsil and Hazara Also . Later on when the Punjab was conquered by the British in 1848, River Jhelum was made the boundary and Murree along with Hazara was thus freed from the clutches of the Dogra Rule.